Open Edition-  An edition issued without limit, individual number, or artists signature (although many artists offer a "signed open edition" on which they affix their signature.)

Limited Edition Print-  An edition of identical prints, numbered sequentially and individually signed by the artist, having a stated limit to the quantity in the edition. Following publication the printing plates are destroyed. Most if not all, are issued along with a certificate of authenticity (COA) which bears the print's number and artist's (or publisher's) signature.

Abstract- A 20th century style of painting in which nonrepresentational lines, colors, shapes, and forms replace accurate visual depiction of objects, landscape, and figures. The subjects often stylized, blurred, repeated or broken down into basic forms so that it becomes unrecognizable. Intangible subjects such as thoughts, emotions, and time are often expressed in abstract art form.

Abstract Expressionism- 1940's New York painting movement based on Abstract Art. This type of painting is often referred to as action painting.

Acrylic- A fast-drying paint which is easy to remove with mineral spirits; a plastic substance commonly used as a binder for paints.

Certificate of Authenticity-  A certificate issued by the publisher stating the total quantity of prints issued in the edition, confirming authenticity of the signatures, and in the case of a limited edition, inscribed with the matching unique number inscribed on the individual print. Collectors are advised to keep certificates safely as a future means of provenance.

Chiaroscuro- In drawing, painting, and the graphic arts, chiaroscuro (ke-ära-skooro) concerns the rendering of forms through a balanced contrast between light and dark areas. The technique that was introduced during the Renaissance, is effective in creating an illusion of depth and space around the principal figures in a composition. Leonardo Da Vinci and Rembrandt were painters who excelled in the use of this technique.

Classical Style- In Greek art, the style of the 5th century B.C. Loosely, the term ?classical? is often applied to all the art of ancient Greece and Rome, as well as to any art based on logical, rational principles and deliberate composition.

Expressionism- An art movement of the early 20th century in which traditional adherence to realism and proportion was replaced by the artist's emotional connection to the subject. These paintings are often abstract, the subject matter distorted in color and form to emphasize and express the intense emotion of the artist.

Fine Art- An art form created primarily as an aesthetic expression to be enjoyed for its own sake. The viewer must be prepared to search for the intent of the artist as the all-important first step toward communication and active participation.

Genre- a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content

Impasto- A thick, juicy application of paint to canvas or other support; emphasizes texture, as distinguished from a smooth flat surface.

Impressionism- An art movement founded in France in the last third of the 19th century. The artist's vision was intensely centered on light and the ways it transforms the visible world. This style of painting is characterized by short brush strokes of bright colors used to recreate visual impressions of the subject and to capture the light, climate and atmosphere of the subject at a specific moment in time.

Mannerism- A term sometimes applied to art of late 16th early 17th century Europe, characterized by a dramatic use of space and light and a tendency toward elongated figures.

Medium- The material used to create a work of art. Also, a term used for the binder for paint, such as oil.

Mixed Media- Descriptive of art that employs more than one medium ? e.g., a work that combines paint, natural materials (wood, pebbles, bones), and man made items (glass, plastic, metals) into a single image or piece of art.

Montage- A picture composed of other existing illustrations, pictures, photographs, newspaper clippings, etc. that are arranged so they combine to create a new or original image. A collage.

Painterly- Descriptive of paintings in which forms are defined principally by color areas, not by lines or edges. Where the artist's brushstrokes are noticeable. Any image that looks as though it may have been created with the style or techniques used by a painter.

Perpsective- The representation of three-dimensional objects on a flat surface so as to produce the same impression of distance and relative size as that received by the human eye. In one-point linear perspective, developed during the fifteenth century, all parallel lines in a given visual field converge at a single vanishing point on the horizon. In aerial or atmospheric perspective, the relative distance of objects is indicated by gradations of tone and color and by variations in the clarity of outlines.

Photorealism- A painting and drawing style of the mid 20th century in which people, objects, and scenes are depicted with such naturalism that the paintings resemble photographs ? an almost exact visual duplication of the subject.

Realism- Any art in which the goal is to portray forms in the natural world in a highly representational manner. Specifically, an art style of the mid 19th century, which fostered the idea that everyday people and events are worthy subjects for important art.

Renaissance- The period in Europe from the 14th to the 16th century, characterized by a renewed interest in Classical art, architecture, literature, and philosophy. The Renaissance began in Italy and gradually spread to the rest of Europe. In art, it is most closely associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

Representational- Works of art that closely resemble forms in the natural world. Synonymous with naturalistic

Romanticism- A movement in Western art of the 19th century generally assumed to be in opposition to Neoclassicism. Romantic works are marked by intense colors, turbulent emotions, complex composition, soft outlines, and sometimes heroic subject matter.

Surrealism- A painting style of the early 20th century that emphasized imagery and visions from dreams and fantasies, as well as an intuitive, spontaneous method of recording such imagery, often combining unrelated or unexpected objects in compositions. The works of Magritte and Dali, and Picasso are included in the genre.

Triptych- A three-part work of art; especially a painting, meant for placement on an altar, with three panels that fold together.

Underpainting- The traditional stage in oil painting of using a monochrome or dead color as a base for composition. Also known as laying in.

Wash- Used in watercolor painting, brush drawing, and occasionally in oil painting and sculpture to describe a broad thin layer of diluted pigment, ink, glaze or patina. Also refers to a drawing made in this technique.






Did you ever wonder what some of those crazy "fine art terms" meant, but were afraid to ask? Well, hopefully you can find out some of those answers here.  The Danny Day Studio is pleased to provide you with some easy to understand definitions that will hopefully help out.



What exactly is a "Giclee"?



A Giclee (zhee-CLAY), is an individually produced, high resolution, high tech reproduction done on a special large format printer. Giclees are produced from digital scans of the existing artwork. Giclees use inkjet technology, but far more sophisticated than a desktop printer.  The process employs six colors…light cyan, cyan, light magenta, magenta, yellow and black…of lightfast (fade resistant), pigmented inks and finer, more numerous, replaceable printheads, resulting in a wider color gamut.  The ink is sprayed onto the canvas, actually mixing the color on the canvas to create truer shades and hues.  Giclée printing offers one of the highest degree of accuracy and richness of color available in any reproduction techniques.



OK, what about all those other types of print making processes I see?



Offset lithography - Offset lithography is a process used for printing on a flat surface, using printing plates. An image is transferred to a printing plate, which can be made of a variety of materials such as metal or paper. The plate is then chemically treated so that only image areas (such as type, colors, shapes and other elements) will accept ink. Water and ink is applied to the plate. Because of the chemical treatment, ink only "sticks" to the image areas, which reject the water.  Areas without images reject the ink. The plate is then rolled onto a rubber cylinder applying the inked area, and in turn the rubber cylinder (or "blanket") applies the image to the paper. The system is "offset" because the plate does not come in direct contact with the paper, which preserves the quality of the plate.

Acryligraph or Canvas Transfer- A reproduction in which inks are chemically lifted off a piece of paper and applied to a piece of canvas sometimes with the ability to replicate the texture and appearance of the original painting.

Traditional or Original Lithography- Printing technique using a planographic process in which prints are pulled on a special press from a flat stone or metal surface that has been chemically sensitized so that ink sticks only to the design areas and is repelled by the non-image areas. Lithography was invented in 1798 in Germany by Alois Senefelder.

Serigraphy-  A printing technique that makes use of a squeegee to force ink directly onto a piece of paper or canvas through a stencil creating an image on a screen of silk or other fine fabric with an impermeable substance. Serigraphy differs from most other printing in that its color areas are paint films rather than printing ink stains.



What is a "Proof"?



Proofs are prints authorized by the artist in addition to the limited signed and numbered edition. The total size of an art edition consists of the signed and numbered prints plus all outstanding proofs. If a set of proofs consists of more than one print, numbers are inscribed to indicate the number of the prints within the total number of the particular type of proof, (e.g., AP 5/20 means the fifth print in a set of twenty identical prints authorized as artist proofs). Proofs are generally signed by the artist as validation of the prints.  



So why are there different kinds of Proofs and explain those Letters and Numbers?



S/N- means signed and numbered.  This numbering indicates the size of the general limited edition.

AP- means Artist Proof - Print intended for the artist's personal use. It is common practice to reserve approximately ten percent of an edition as artist's proofs, although this figure can be higher. Artist's proofs can be distinguished by the abbreviation AP, commonly on the lower left of the work.

HC- means Hors d’Commerce - Print identical to the edition print intended to be used as samples to show to dealers and galleries. These proofs may or may not be signed by the artist.

PP- means Printer’s or Player’s Proof - Print retained by the printer or athlete as a reference. Artists often sign these prints as a gesture of appreciation.

Remarqued Print-  A print issued with an original pencil drawing by the artist in the margin, each numbered out of the quantity of individually remarqued prints in the edition. The quantity of remarqued prints in any one edition generally is limited to between 10 and 50. Each remarque drawing made by the artist is slightly different, thus making each print totally unique. Remarqued prints may be available at the time of publication, or announced at a later date, depending upon the artist's work load at the time. An artist remarqued print is the ultimate collector item in terms of reproduced work.



Do Proofs look different than prints in the "signed and numbered" edition?



No.  All prints are created the same and look identical.  There is just a different numbering system which makes the Proof more rare and sought after.  In a different era, long ago, the print making process was inconsistent and some prints would be of a higher quality.  The best would be pulled out, numbered and saved as the "proof" part of the edition.  Modern technology has elimenated the inconsistencies in the printing process.



Let's get "highbrow"...explain some other Fine Art terms I need to know?



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